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Variable size symbols
The size of some mathematical symbols, notably summation signs, product signs, and
integral signs, depends on the environment in which they
appear (i.e., displaymath as opposed to math environments;
see Math Formulas and
Math Fonts and Styles).
The \sqrt command also produces a variable
size symbol appropriate for the size of hte radicand argument.
- \sum a summation sign (capital sigma)
- \prod a product (capital pi)
- \coprod a coproduct (inverted capital pi)
- \int an integral sign
- \oint a surface (circular) integral sign
- \bigcup big "U"
- \bigcap big inverted "U"
- \bigvee big "V"
- \bigwedge big inverted "V"
- \bigodot big "O" with dot at center
- \bigotimes big "O" with cross inside
- \bigoplus big "O" with a + inside
- \biguplus big "U" with a + inside
The "limits" associated with these symbols are entered as
subscripts for entries appearing below the
symbol and as superscripts for entries appearing
above the symbol.
For example the sum from n=0 to infinity of xn would be entered as
The actual placement of the limits depends on whether this
is in displaymath mode in which case they are placed below/above
or in math mode in running text in which case they are placed as regular
subscripts and superscripts.
Note that it is possible to treat several of these symbols (a common example
would be a double sum) as a single symbol for placing limits above and/or
below by using the \mathop command.
"Hats" and "tildes" over symbols which stretch (as best they can) to
the correct size for their arguments are produced by
\widehat and \widetilde.
Back to the LaTeX Table of Contents
Revised: Sheldon Green, 28 Nov 1995.